World Thrombosis Day 2021: What Is Thrombosis? Know The Causes,

World Thrombosis Day 2021: What Is Thrombosis? Know The Causes, Types And Treatment

Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot known as a thrombus

Thrombosis is one of the most common and unavoidable conditions that can occur in an individual. The clotting of the blood is known as a thrombus, and when this blood clot blocks the flow of blood, it is called thrombosis. Blood clots are quite normal, they can form on any artery and are able to migrate to other organs such as the heart, lungs, or brain. Usually, blood clots are harmless and dissolve themselves. However, mobile blood clots can give rise to severe complications that can affect blood circulation; it also increases the risk of heart attacks or brain stroke.

World Thrombosis Day: Types, diagnosis, treatment and more

Types of blood clots

Thrombosis can be majorly categorized as venous thrombosis or arterial thrombosis, depending on the position of the blood clot.

Venomous thrombosis can occur when the blood clots in the veins (veins carry blood to the heart) and is often undetected and fatal, yet curable. It can further be divided into:

  • Deep Vein Thrombosis
  • Portal vein thrombosis
  • Cerebral venous thrombosis
  • Budd-Chiari Syndrome
  • Venous thoracic outlet syndrome

Arterial thrombosis is a condition when the blood clots in the arteries carrying blood to other organs. Arterial thrombosis can block the blood supply to the heart that can cause a heart attack. When the blood vessels of the brain are clotted, this condition can lead to brain stroke.

A deep vein clot does not cause complications like a heart attack or stroke; it is only arterial thrombosis that can be dangerous.

There can be three main causes of thrombosis: inherited thrombosis defect, injury in blood vessels, and irregular blood circulation. Thrombosis is severe depending on the location of blocked arteries or veins.

Some common complications include hypoxia, breathing problems, pain, or redness in the affected area. In some cases, the blood clot can travel through the body; a moving clot is especially dangerous and is called an embolism.

Diagnosis and treatment

Detecting the symptoms of blood clotting can help in the proper diagnosis of thrombosis. Your health care provider can examine you through your family’s medical history and other tests like- blood tests, ultrasound (to check the flow of blood), Venography, or even MRI/ CT for certain locations of the blood clot.

The treatment of thrombosis also depends on age, overall health, body’s response to treatment, and therapies. Immediate medical attention to cases of pulmonary embolism is advisable. In the case of deep vein thrombosis, medication can help treat the pain and swelling. Another concordant method for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is compression stockings for severe cases. Other treatments may include anticoagulants, catheters, and other medicines to dissolve the blood clot.

Thrombosis is curable, but you can avoid it by taking regular care of your body to prevent blood clots. The condition of blood clotting happens due to blockage in veins and arteries. Living an active life, taking a walk (for people who sit for long hours), cutting down consumption of alcohol, avoiding smoke, and following doctor’s advice based on personal risk factors can avoid it from getting complicated.

(Dr. Virender Sheorain is a Senior Consultant, Interventional Radiologist, Division of Peripheral Vascular & Endovascular Sciences at Medanta-The Medicity, Gurugram, India)

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